South America and Africa have provided alluring locations for the avid adventurer in the 20th century. Exploration was thought to be a man’s job and only the manliest of men could embark on such adventures. One man that exemplified this thought process was Theodore Roosevelt, who trekked to both South America and Africa. However, even a man’s job can be perilous when undertaken by the “manliest of men” in the 20th century.
Memoir by Frank Harper. Sagamore Hill National Historic Site.
Roosevelt, Theodore. Through the Brazilian Wilderness. New York, 1919.
Roosevelt, Theodore. African Game Trails: An Account of the African Wanderings of an American Hunter-Naturalist., 1909.
Summary: The Jeannette Expedition was a four year journey to the north pole led by captain George W. DeLong. They set off from California in 1879 and headed north towards the pole. The goal of this expedition was to discover what was beyond the ice at the north pole. Sadly this journey did not go as planned and they spent three years drifting in an ice pack trying their best to survive. They drifted westward above Siberia there the ship could no longer withstand the constant pressure from the ice and sank into the depths. The crew was able to abandon ship in time and made their way southward into Russia. It was during this stage of their journey that most of the crew perished. 13 of the 33 man crew were able to make it home safely and live to tell their story. The wreckage of the Jeannette has still never been found.
The journals of the captain were recovered and brought home where they were published as a novel. During that time the expedition had become famous, and even fifty years later the story was adapted into a radio broadcast by Orsen Welles. The Jeannette Expedition has fallen out of popular history today, but it is a story filled with excitement and is very much worth telling.
De Long, George W. The Voyage of the Jeannette. :The Ship and Ice Journals of George W. De Long, Lieutenant-Commander U.S.N. and Commander of the Polar Expedition of 1879-1881 /. Vol. 1. 2 vols. Boston :, 1884. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015014699048.
De Long, George W. The Voyage of the Jeannette. :The Ship and Ice Journals of George W. De Long, Lieutenant-Commander U.S.N. and Commander of the Polar Expedition of 1879-1881 /. Vol. 2. 2 vols. Boston :, 1884. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015014699055.
A young United States had conducted several expeditions to explore the vast continent of North America from sea to shining sea. The westward expansion and the discovery of gold along the west coast, witnessed an endless amount of settlers migrating towards the west of the United States for new opportunities. To better establish the West as a place for economic opportunity, an expedition into the Pacific had been issued. An expedition in which its intentions were to better understand and survey the largest ocean in the world and create relations with Asia for interregional trade. Congress would create the Northern Pacific exploring and surveying expedition under the command of Captain Cadwalader Ringgold, who had previous success on the Wilkes Expedition and would have to surrender command during the expedition for his unfit condition. Throughout the expedition, surveyors would analyze new plants and algae not previously discovered along the coast and inland while pressing to make relations with leaders of Japan and China for the benefit of the two nations and the United States. The overall success of this expedition would eventually not receive the attention it would have due to the interruption of the American Civil war, classifying it as an overshadowed success in American exploration.
The Washburn Expedition (also known as the Washburn-Doane-Langford Expedition) occurred in August and September of 1870. Led by General Henry Washburn, the expedition would be the second of three separate expedition teams to explore the region of the Montana Territory that would eventually become Yellowstone National Park, the first US National Park. Washburn, General Gustavus Doane, Nathaniel P. Langford and the 19 other men on the expeditions primary mission was to conduct a geographical survey of the region and improve upon the inaccurate maps that the first expedition, the Folsom-Cook-Peterson expedition, relied on. While being rocked by the sheer beauty of the natural Montana Territory, the expedition did manage to lose one of its members, Truman C. Everts. During their expedition they recorded many geographical features popular in the park today, mainly Old Faithful, the geyser.
The first Black Sea expedition, or the Sinop D Expedition, occurred in 2000. The expedition was led by Robert Ballard, a fascinating figure with a long history of oceanic science and expedition. Initially starting off in marine biology, Ballard became famous in 1985 when he helped discover the ruins of the Titanic.
The Black Sea is a unique place for expedition, as its certain conditions keep ancient ships in pristine condition. This was the case in 2000, when Robert Ballard helped unearth the Sinop D expedition, an Ancient Greek ship with a history of trade amongst changing political climates. Ballard’s expedition led to numerous Black Sea expeditions and discoveries, unearthing even older and larger shipwrecks.
Ballard, Robert D., Fredrik T. Hiebert, Dwight F. Coleman, Cheryl Ward, Jennifer S. Smith, Kathryn Willis, Brendan Foley, Katherine Croff, Candace Major, and Francesco Torre. “Deepwater Archaeology of the Black Sea: The 2000 Season at Sinop, Turkey.” American Journal of Archaeology 105, no. 4 (2001): 607-23. Accessed May 3, 2020. doi:10.2307/507409.
The twin Voyager probes were launched in 1977 and their mission was to explore the Jupiter and Saturn. After their “primary mission” was complete the discoveries led them to extend the mission to allow Voyager 2 to explore Uranus and Neptune. Having completed their mission they were then tasked with their greatest mission to date, exploring the outermost edge of the Sun’s domain and everything that lies beyond that. To this day they have shown humanity what lies in space beyond, then and current, human travel like the volcanoes of Io (Jupiter’s moon) and the rings of Saturn.
“Voyager’s View: Spacecraft’s Journey to Interstellar Space Helps Put the Solar System in Perspective.” Science News 184, no. 8 (2013): 19-21. www.jstor.org/stable/23599473.
J. Eberhart. “Uranus and Neptune: Voyager 2’s Prognosis for the Long Haul.” Science News 121, no. 6 (1982): 86. www.jstor.org/stable/3966701.
Stone, E. C., and E. D. Miner. “Voyager 1 Encounter with the Saturnian System.” Science 212, no. 4491 (1981): 159-63. www.jstor.org/stable/1685660.
Stone, E. C., and A. L. Lane. “Voyager 1 Encounter with the Jovian System.” Science 204, no. 4396 (1979): 945-48. www.jstor.org/stable/1748134.
Stone, E. C., and E. D. Miner. “Voyager 2 Encounter with the Saturnian System.” Science 215, no. 4532 (1982): 499-504. www.jstor.org/stable/1688024.
Stone, E. C., and A. L. Lane. “Voyager 2 Encounter with the Jovian System.” Science 206, no. 4421 (1979): 925-27. www.jstor.org/stable/1749284.
Stone, E. C., and E. D. Miner. “The Voyager 2 Encounter with the Neptunian System.” Science 246, no. 4936 (1989): 1417-421. www.jstor.org/stable/1704899.
Stone, E. C., and E. D. Miner. “The Voyager 2 Encounter with the Uranian System.” Science 233, no. 4759 (1986): 39-43. www.jstor.org/stable/1697494.
Bell, Jim. The Interstellar Age : Inside the Forty-Year Voyager Mission New York, New York: Dutton, 2015.
Pyne, Stephen J. Voyager : Seeking Newer Worlds in the Third Great Age of Discovery New York: Viking, 2010.Impey, Chris., and Holly. Henry. Dreams of Other Worlds : The Amazing Story of Unmanned Space Exploration Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013.
Voyager Spacecraft 40th Anniversary
“Voyager at 40: Keep Reaching for the Stars”
NASA News Conference: Voyager Reaches Interstellar Space